How HPV is transmitted from person to person, how can you get infected

An HPV carrier may not know they are infected. Symptoms do not appear immediately and only in the form of papillomas of different localization:

  1. Vulgar. They appear in the form of a small hard bump with a diameter of about 1 cm, most often on the hands.
  2. Filiform. Small yellow cone-shaped seals, often changing and growing.
  3. plantar wartsIt is often confused with corns.
  4. Flat. Itching before the manifestation, similar to the manifestation of an allergy. Then they become rounded, light.
  5. Pointed warts. They are located in intimate places, on the mucous membrane.

In women with formations on the genitals, accompanying signs may appear:

  • heat;
  • Itch;
  • cycle violation;
  • pain, blood at the sites of neoplasms.

In men, HPV rarely manifests itself in the form of genital warts, which act as carriers of the disease.

Blood test for papillomavirus type 18 (16)

A blood test for human papillomavirus in developed countries is used for mass screening of carriers and sick people. The diagnostic reliability of cytology is up to 95%. A DNA test in the US is performed for the following indications:

  • In women over 30 years of age, as a screening test;
  • To identify questionable research results;
  • In the absence of detection programs;
  • For monitoring after removal of cervical cancer.
papillomas on the neck

The list of diagnostic procedures for the detection of papillomavirus:

  1. Cytological examination in combination with the Digene test allows you to determine the clinically significant concentration of the virus in the blood;
  2. Urological, gynecological examination - to detect genital warts, genital warts;
  3. Histological examination of a piece of tissue taken after a gynecological or urological examination.

The main task of diagnosing papillomavirus is the detection of precancerous conditions. Colposcopy and cytology are the most common and cheapest ways to diagnose the disease.

Transfer Methods

Among the mechanisms under the influence of which you can become infected, there are:

  • Contact;
  • vertical (from mother to child during childbirth).

The implementation of the contact mechanism is carried out through sexual and domestic-contact routes. Therefore, HPV can be transmitted through:

  • handshake and kiss;
  • the use of other people's hygiene products, including razor, washcloth, soap, towel and cosmetics;
  • wear clothes that belong to the carrier of the infection;
  • visiting public baths, saunas and swimming pools.

Oncogenic types of the virus are sexually transmitted. The risk of contagion increases many times in those people who are promiscuous in their partners. The more often they change, the greater the chance of infection, and even using a condom you can not be sure of its safety.

It can also be infected with homosexual relationships, since they are the ones that are characterized by injuring the epithelium and mucous membranes. And a condom in this case does not help much either. The presence of warts on the body of a sexual partner also signals the possibility of acquiring HPV through microtrauma to the body.

Pregnant women who carry HPV should be aware of the possibility of infecting a child during their passage through the birth canal.

Infection takes place only in the presence of characteristic growths in the genital area and cervix. At the same time, papillomavirus infection in a child manifests itself in the form of growths in the larynx, which are particularly dangerous. It will be difficult for the baby to breathe and eat, perhaps even suffocate.

To begin with, it is worth saying that papilloma is transmitted through the epidermis and saliva. At the same time, the infection may not make itself felt for some time and manifests itself in the formation of genital warts and papillomas only with a decrease in immunity. If we talk about how the papilloma virus is transmitted, the probability of infection increases significantly if there are damages, scratches and abrasions on the skin.

Attention! Many people are interested in whether papilloma is inherited. The answer is no. Just when one of the family members is infected, the papilloma virus is transmitted at home or from mother to baby during childbirth.

There is an opinion that most often the human papillomavirus is transmitted through sexual contact. This is true, but there are also other routes of infection. The incubation period for human papillomavirus can be up to 10 years. Papillomas on the body can be formed through a simple touch or through another person's saliva.

There are over a hundred strains of HPV, most of which are spread through various types of close contact.


HPV is sexually transmitted. This reason is considered the most common and insidious, because often girls and boys are not aware of the presence of an infection in the blood. Popular protection methods do not provide 100% security against viruses, especially if it is not a barrier method.

A condom gives a person little protection against HPV. It all depends on the type of infection and the person's immune system.

HPV can affect the skin anywhere on the body. Papilloma is often sexually transmitted.

The infection can even occur through a condom. This is due to the fact that the virus lives in superficial tissues and easily colonizes mucous membranes.

In the presence of a microabrasion, the virus enters the bloodstream and begins its destructive work. As a result of infection, genital warts or neoplasms that resemble cauliflower appear on the mucous tissues of the genital organs.

Men often infect their partners during intimate relationships. They have a stronger immune system and rarely show visible signs of infection. If there are a lot of sexual relations with unknown women, they can play the role of carriers of the virus for some time. Papillomavirus can be passed from female to male if the sexual partner has a weak immune system.

A person who is naturally immune to this virus can touch the warts, have sex with a sick person, and stay healthy. There are cases where one partner tested positive for HPV and the other negative, despite living together for a long time.

Other routes of infection

The method of infection by domestic means is quite common, as is the possibility of getting an infection during sexual intercourse.

The virus can be transmitted by swimming in contaminated water, outdoor or indoor pools. You may see peculiar growths on the body some time after visiting a bath or sauna where an infected person has visited.

HPV is transmitted intranatally or transplacentally. For each method there is a certain risk of infection.

Research suggests that cesarean delivery increases the chance of human papillomavirus infection. In natural childbirth or artificial childbirth in women, the risk of infection does not change.

The recurrent course of respiratory papillomatosis is provoked by the presence of several types of pathogens: 68, 59, 56, 52, 51, 45, 39, 35, 33, 31, 18, 16. Differences in the oncogenicity of serotypes lies in the ability of each type to determine the number of intracellular divisions.

Transmission of HPV through sexual contact

Through sexual intercourse, HPV is transmitted as a sexually transmitted infection. After contact of the blood of a carrier or an infected person with the blood of a donor (by erosion, cracks in the genital organs), the virion enters the bloodstream. Clinical symptoms are formed depending on the serotype of the virus:

  • Vulgar plantar warts are caused by HPV types 63, 1, 4, 2;
  • Flat warts - 75, 41, 28, 49. 10, 3;
  • Epidermodysplasia verruciformis is seen in patients with serotype 11 or 6 papillomatosis.

According to scientists, there are many papillomaviruses that have not yet been examined. Oncogenic representatives have been carefully studied by mankind, which has made it possible to create effective protection against cervical cancer in women.

The mechanism of infection with papillomavirus in a domestic way.

Human papillomavirus is a highly contagious virus, and according to statistics, 50-70% of the population is infected with it. However, the clinical manifestations of infection are not so common, in about 1-2% of cases. A person does not even realize that he is a carrier of HPV until there is a decrease in immunity and activation of the virus. By knowing the main ways HPV is transmitted, you can protect yourself from unwanted symptoms. So, HPV, how is the disease transmitted? All possible transmission routes will be discussed below.

Papilloma: how is it transmitted and what is it?

Currently, about 100 different varieties of the virus are known. Among them, there are both harmless to humans and dangerous in terms of the development of cancer.

The following data may be encouraging: the viruses that cause the formation of warts and papillomas belong to subtypes 6 and 11, which have a low carcinogenic risk. Oncogenic subtypes include strains 16 and 18, which cause cell mutation and cervical cancer.

The papillomavirus multiplies exclusively in the cells of the skin and mucous membranes, causing their uncontrolled division. As a result, a person has the following clinical manifestations:

  • various warts (common, flat, plantar);
  • Genital warts;
  • papillomatosis of the mouth and larynx;
  • papillomas of internal organs.

The role of the virus in the development of cervical cancer in women and penile cancer in men has been demonstrated, so it is important to know how the papilloma virus is transmitted to prevent infections.

Human papillomavirus: ways of transmission

It is impossible to detect the presence of a virus in the body on its own if there are no characteristic growths on the skin or mucous membranes. Specialized medical tests will identify a sleep pathology. The absence of symptoms does not guarantee that a person is not dangerous to others.

How is the papilloma virus (HPV) transmitted? Doctors distinguish several forms.

contact home

HPV is transmitted through the home. It is worth noting that infrequently, but this option for infection with human papillomavirus (PVI), nevertheless, has the right to exist.

You can get infected by shaking hands, using common household items: towels, slippers, wearing someone else's clothing, especially underwear. Often the infection occurs when visiting the pool, gym.

The microscopic organism has such high activity that HPV is transmitted through saliva, a kiss.

The risk of infection increases if the skin has abrasions, scratches, microcracks and various wounds. Particularly contagious are people with characteristic manifestations of the disease - warts and papillomas.

A fairly common question: Will regular hand washing reduce the risk of infection? Of course, clean skin is more protected. However, hygiene measures do not protect against papillomavirus infection.

Is papillomavirus (HPV) sexually transmitted?

One sexual contact is enough to infect a person. HPV is transmitted through oral, vaginal, and anal sex.

Most often, the infection comes from a man, but the opposite situation is also possible, when a reverse HPV infection is recorded, from a woman to a man.

Predisposing factors are:

  • early intimacy at a young age;
  • frequent change of sexual partners, because do not forget that the papillomavirus is sexually transmitted;
  • the presence of genital warts on the genitals.

Papilloma is also sexually transmitted through homosexual intercourse, during which minor lesions occur on the skin and mucous membranes of the anal area. This significantly increases the risk of infection, especially if one of the partners has external manifestations of the disease - anogenital warts.

Is the human papilloma virus transmitted by protected sex? Unfortunately yes. HPV is transmitted through condoms, since visible warts can be located in the inguinal region unprotected by the product.

Using a condom greatly reduces the risk of infection, but it does not offer a complete guarantee of safety. Despite this, condom use is recommended for all people who have multiple sexual partners.

HPV is easily transmitted through oral sex. This increases the risk of developing tonsil cancer, especially if a person has been infected with oncogenic strains.

Papilloma virus: transmission from mother to child (vertical method)

Many pregnant women worry: is HPV transmitted from mother to child? Unfortunately, such a route of infection does occur, and infection can occur both through the placenta (prenatally) and during delivery.

If the first option is an incredible rarity, then when a baby passes through an infected birth canal, a child can get papillomavirus with a high degree of probability.

Possible infection of the larynx, bronchi and trachea in a newborn. The virus burrows into the mucous membranes and stimulates the formation of growths. Laryngeal papillomatosis can lead to stenosis and suffocation of the child, especially if the vocal cords are affected. Any infection, a cold leads to swelling of the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract, and in the presence of concomitant papillomas, this ends with difficulty in inhaling and exhaling.

Papillomavirus infection (PVI) is included in the group of anthroponotic pathogens (transmission is carried out exclusively from person to person). If we talk about how you can get infected with papillomavirus (HPV), then mainly through sexual contact with an infected partner. In addition, the virus can remain active on dead skin cells for a certain (relatively short) period of time, which is why, in certain situations, human papillomavirus infection is carried out by domestic means. Now a little more about how to get HPV and what methods of contagion exist.

contagious papillomatosis

First of all, it is worth answering the question: "Is papilloma contagious? "Undoubtedly. And the appearance of warts requires complex treatment, which includes not only the removal of formations, but also the administration of the necessary drugs.

Is latent HPV contagious? Another frequently asked question from patients. The answer will also be positive. It is worth knowing that even the practice of protected sex is not a complete guarantee against infection. The virus can be found in the groin and on the surface of the genitals, not protected by a condom.

Human papilloma virus: sexually transmitted infection

The main mode of transmission of papilloma is sexual intercourse with an infected partner. This type of transmission is typical of most strains of the virus with high oncogenic activity.

The risk of contracting the disease is especially high in men and women who are promiscuous when it comes to choosing a sexual partner. People with homosexual inclinations should also be included in the risk group. The practice of anal sex is accompanied by trauma to the skin and mucous membranes, which greatly facilitates the process of introducing HPV DNA into the human body.

A person often takes the growths on the skin as harmless and treats them with folk methods. This mistake can have dangerous consequences: abnormal growth of epithelial tissue exacerbates the spread of papillomavirus throughout the body, and some of its strains cause cell mutations with the formation of various types of cancer.

More than 80% of the world's population is a carrier of the human papillomavirus, regardless of age and race.

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a very common disease against which neither children nor adults are protected. Catching this infection is quite simple, since its cells are all around us and remain viable without a carrier for a long time.

In addition, it can settle on the human body imperceptibly and will not manifest itself to a certain extent. During all this time, the infected object is a carrier of the disease, so HPV is transmitted both to people who are close to him and to his family members.

Papillomavirus - a provocateur of the development of oncology.

Almost every third person has small growths on the body that initially seem harmless and harmless. When such neoplasms are found, the first reaction of the patient is to tear them out or remove them with folk methods.

Indeed, such actions often cause irreparable damage to health, since improper removal of papilloma can lead to active proliferation of epithelial tissues. This is what contributes to the rapid spread of HPV in the body and, in some cases, even causes a mutation of skin cells with subsequent degeneration into a cancerous tumor.

To date, scientists have divided all types of papillomaviruses into three categories:

  • sure;
  • little oncogenic;
  • highly oncogenic.

One of the characteristics of HPV is that it is not a sexually transmitted disease in the usual sense. The sexual route is only one of several routes of infection, and far from being the main one. That's why condoms can't always protect against human papillomavirus.

We offer to find out what methods of transmission of the virus exist, how the infection occurs and whether it can be avoided.

In total, medicine knows about 130 types of human papillomavirus. Only about 40 of them affect the genitals. For most of these 40 types, the sexual route of transmission is the main one, but studies show that it is not the only one.

hpv prevention

There are a number of preventive measures, so it is very likely that the human papillomavirus infection will not enter the body.

  • any damage to the skin should be treated with antiseptics;
  • use only personal hygiene products;
  • in saunas, baths and public swimming pools it is necessary to wear rubber slippers;
  • any illness must be treated in a timely manner;
  • loyalty to a sexual partner who can be trusted;
  • use a condom for any sexual intercourse. Although this does not guarantee safety, however, through a condom, the human papillomavirus enters the body of women and men less likely;
  • regular exercise;
  • body hardening;
  • adherence to sleep and nutrition.

Such precautions must be taken not only to avoid HPV infection, but also other sexually transmitted infections. The condom provides a guarantee against infection of many diseases that cause the activation of the HPV virus.

In the case of the presence of a virus in the body of a pregnant woman and the manifestations of it in the genital area, a full examination and removal of such neoplasms is necessary. If there are papillomas on the genitals, a cesarean section is recommended for a woman to prevent infection of the child during passage through the birth canal.

There is a special vaccine against viruses of highly oncogenic strains, which is recommended mainly for women under 26 years of age and adolescents. Even under the condition that the HPV carrier himself is vaccinated, his immunity improves markedly, and the virus goes into an inactive phase.

At the same time, it should be borne in mind that the virus does not disappear from the body, and therefore the person remains a carrier of the infection. For safety reasons, you need to use a condom during sexual intercourse and use only personal hygiene products.

We found out how the human papillomavirus is transmitted (women, men and children), now it remains to consider preventive measures. It should be said immediately that the most effective way to avoid getting infected is preventive vaccination.

To date, two types of vaccines against this infection are known. They protect against the most dangerous oncogenic strains of a viral infection.

However, the high effectiveness of such protection is observed only when vaccinated at a young age, before sexual activity or before infection with one of the HPV strains.

In order not to get infected with the human papillomavirus, you need to follow a few simple rules that will help you avoid other, more serious health problems:

  • be careful when choosing sexual partners: avoid casual contacts;
  • observe the rules of personal hygiene: wash your hands more often, especially after visiting public places;
  • strengthen immunity - if possible, avoid stress and overwork;
  • get vaccinated: the vaccine appeared relatively recently, in 2006.

Even having studied the ways of transmission of the human papillomavirus and following all the rules of prevention, it is impossible to fully protect yourself from HPV infection. If you have had contact with a sick person and you are afraid that you could transmit the virus, you can do a blood test for PCR. This way you will get a reliable answer. But it should be noted that HPV does not require treatment if it does not have characteristic clinical manifestations.